CARE Reference List

This is a list of ageing and related refences compiled by CARE members.  If you have new references or corrections you would like to see added to the list please email This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it

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Anderl, D. M., A. Nishimura, and S. A. Lowe. 1996. Is the first annulus on the otolith of the Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopherygius, missing? Fishery Bulletin 94(1):163-169.

Andrews, A. H., E. J. Burton, K. H. Coale, G. M. Cailliet, and R. E. Crabtree. 2001. Radiometric age validation of Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus. Fishery Bulletin 99(3):389-398.

Andrews, A. H., E. J. Burton, L. A. Kerr, G. M. Cailliet, K. H. Coale, C. C. Lundstrom, and T. A. Brown. 2005. Bomb radiocarbon and lead-radium disequilibria in otoliths of bocaccio rockfish (Sebastes paucispinis): a determination of age and longevity for a difficult-to-age fish. Marine and Freshwater Research 56(5):517-528.

Andrews, A. H., G. M. Caillet, K. H. Coale, K. M. Munk, M. M. Mahoney, and V. M. O'Connell. 2002. Radiometric age validation of the yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) from southeastern Alaska. Marine and Freshwater Research 53(2):139-146.

Andrews, A. H., G. M. Cailliet, and K. H. Coale. 1999. Age and growth of the Pacific grenadier (Coryphaenoides acrolepis) with age estimate validation using an improved radiometric ageing technique. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56(8):1339-1350.

Andrews, A. H., K. H. Coale, J. L. Nowicki, C. Lundstrom, Z. Palacz, E. J. Burton, and G. M. Cailliet. 1999. Application of an ion-exchange separation technique and thermal ionization mass spectrometry to Ra-226 determination in otoliths for radiometric age determination of long-lived fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56(8):1329-1338.

Andrews, A. H., E. E. Cordes, M. M. Mahoney, K. Munk, K. H. Coale, G. M. Cailliet, and J. Heifetz. 2002. Age, growth and radiometric age validation of a deep-sea, habitat-forming gorgonian (Primnoa resedaeformis) from the Gulf of Alaska. Hydrobiologia 471:101-110.

Andrews, A. H., L. A. Kerr, G. M. Cailliet, T. A. Brown, C. C. Lundstrom, and R. D. Stanley. 2007. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating. Marine and Freshwater Research 58(6):531-541.

Andrews, A. H., R. P. Stone, C. C. Lundstrom, and A. P. DeVogelaere. 2009. Growth rate and age determination of bamboo corals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean using refined Pb-210 dating. Marine Ecology Progress Series 397:173-185.

Andrews, A. H., D. M. Tracey, and M. R. Dunn. 2009. Lead-radium dating of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus): validation of a centenarian life span. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66(7):1130-1140.

Baker, M. S., and C. A. Wilson. 2001. Use of bomb radiocarbon to validate otolith section ages of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 46(7):1819-1824.

Baker, M. S., C. A. Wilson, and D. L. VanGent. 2001. Testing assumptions of otolith radiometric aging with two long-lived fishes from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58(6):1244-1252.

Beamish, R. J. 1973. Determination of age and growth of populations of the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exhibiting a wide range in size at maturity. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30(5):607-616.

Beamish, R. J. 1981. Use of fin-ray sections to age walleye pollock, Pacific cod, and albacore, and the importance of this method. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110(2):287-299.

Beamish, R. J., and D. Chilton. 1977. Age determination of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) using dorsal fin rays and scales. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34(9):1305-1313.

Beamish, R. J., and D. E. Chilton. 1982. Preliminary evaluation of a method to determine the age of Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39(2):277-287.

Beamish, R. J., and D. A. Fournier. 1981. A method for comparing the precision of a set of age determinations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38(8):982-983.

Beamish, R. J., and H. H. Harvey. 1969. Age determination in the white sucker. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:633-638.

Beamish, R. J., and G. A. McFarlane. 1983. The forgotten requirement for age validation in fisheries biology. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112(6):735-743.

Beamish, R. J., and G. A. McFarlane. 1985. Annulus development on the second dorsal spine of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) its validity for age determination. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42(11):1799-1805.

Beamish, R. J., and G. A. McFarlane. 1987. Current trends in age determination methodology. Pages 15-42 [in] R. C. Summerfelt, Editor. the age and growth of fish

Beamish, R. J., and G. A. McFarlane. 1995. A discussion of the importance of aging errors, and an application to walleye pollock: the world's largest fishery. Pages 545-565 [in] D. H. Secor, J. M. Dean, and S. E. Campana, Editors. Recent Developments in Fish Otolith Research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina.

Beamish, R. J., and G. A. McFarlane. 2000. Reevaluation of the interpretation of annuli from otoliths of a long-lived fish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Fisheries Research 46(1-3):105-111.

Bennett, J. T., G. W. Boehlert, and K. K. Turekian. 1982. Confirmation of songevity in Sebastes diploproa (Pisces, Scorpaenidae) from Pb-210-Ra-226 measurements in otoliths. Marine Biology 71(2):209-215.

Bilton, H. T., and D. W. Jenkinson. 1969. Age determination of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and chum (O. keta) salmon from examination of pectoral fin rays. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:1199-1203.

Bilton, H. T., and S. A. M. Ludwig. 1966. Times of annulus formation on scales of sockeye, pink and chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 23:1403-1410.

Black, B. A. 2009. Climate-driven synchrony across tree, bivalve, and rockfish growth-increment chronologies of the northeast Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378:37-46.

Black, B. A., G. W. Boehlert, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2005. Using tree-ring crossdating techniques to validate annual growth increments in long-lived fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(10):2277-2284.

Black, B. A., G. W. Boehlert, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2008. Establishing climate-growth relationships for yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) in the northeast Pacific using a dendrochronological approach. Fisheries Oceanography 17(5):368-379.

Black, B. A., C. A. Copenheaver, D. C. Frank, M. J. Stuckey, and R. E. Kormanyos. 2009. Multi-proxy reconstructions of northeastern Pacific sea surface temperature data from trees and Pacific geoduck. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 278(1-4):40-47.

Black, B. A., D. C. Gillespie, S. E. MacLellan, and C. M. Hand. 2008. Establishing highly accurate production-age data using the tree-ring technique of crossdating: a case study for Pacific geoduck (Panopea abrupta). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(12):2572-2578.

Cailliet, G. M., A. H. Andrews, E. J. Burton, D. L. Watters, D. E. Kline, and L. A. Ferry-Graham. 2001. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer? Experimental Gerontology 36(4-6):739-764.

Campana, S. E. 1997. Use of radiocarbon from nuclear fallout as a dated marker in the otoliths of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 150(1-3):49-56.

Campana, S. E. 1999. Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms and applications. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188:263-297.

Campana, S. E. 2001. Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. Journal of Fish Biology 59(2):197-242.

Campana, S. E. 2005. Otolith science entering the 21st century. Marine and Freshwater Research 56(5):485-495.

Campana, S. E., J. M. Casselman, and C. M. Jones. 2008. Bomb radiocarbon chronologies in the Arctic, with implications for the age validation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other Arctic species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(4):733-743.

Campana, S. E., G. A. Chouinard, J. M. Hanson, A. Frechet, and J. Brattey. 2000. Otolith elemental fingerprints as biological tracers of fish stocks. Fisheries Research 46(1-3):343-357.

Campana, S. E., C. Jones, G. A. McFarlane, and S. Myklevoll. 2006. Bomb dating and age validation using the spines of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Environmental Biology of Fishes 77(3-4):327-336.

Campana, S. E., and C. M. Jones. 1998. Radiocarbon from nuclear testing applied to age validation of black drum, Pogonias cromis. Fishery Bulletin 96(2):185-192.

Campana, S. E., L. J. Natanson, and S. Myklevoll. 2002. Bomb dating and age determination of large pelagic sharks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59(3):450-455.

Campana, S. E., R. D. Stanley, and S. Wischniowski. 2003. Suitability of glycerin-preserved otoliths for age validation using bomb radiocarbon. Journal of Fish Biology 63(4):848-854.

Campana, S. E., and S. R. Thorrold. 2001. Otoliths, increments, and elements: keys to a comprehensive understanding of fish populations? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58(1):30-38.

Campana, S. E., K. C. T. Zwanenburg, and J. N. Smith. 1990. Pb-210/Ra-226 determination of longevity in redfish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47(1):163-165.

Cass, A. J., and R. J. Beamish. 1983. First evidence of validity of the fin-ray method of age determination for marine fishes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 3(2):182-188.

Chilton, D. E., and H. T. Bilton. 1986. New method for ageing chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using dorsal fin rays, and evidence of its validity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43(8):1588-1594.

Chilton, D. E., and M. Stocker. 1987. A comparison of otolith and scale methods for aging Pacific herring. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7(2):202-206.

Fargo, J., and D. E. Chilton. 1987. Age validation for rock sole in Hecate Strait, British Columbia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116(5):776-778.

Fenton, G. E., and S. A. Short. 1992. Fish age validation by radiometric analysis of otoliths. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43(5):913-922.

Fenton, G. E., S. A. Short, and D. A. Ritz. 1991. Age-determination of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus (Pisces, Trachichthyidae) using Pb-210-Ra-226 disequilibria. Marine Biology 109(2):197-202.

Ferreira, L. C. G., R. J. Beamish, and J. H. Youson. 1999. Macroscopic structure of the fin-rays and their annuli in pectoral and pelvic fins of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Journal of Morphology 239(3):297-320.

Kalish, J. M. 1991. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in the otoliths of wild and laboratory-reared Australian salmon (Arripis trutta). Marine Biology 110(1):37-47.

Kalish, J. M. 1993. Pre-bomb and post-bomb radiocarbon in fish otoliths. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 114(4):549-554.

Kalish, J. M. 1995. Application of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to the validation of redfish Centroberyx affinis age. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52(7):1399-1405.

Kalish, J. M., J. M. Johnston, J. S. Gunn, and N. P. Clear. 1996. Use of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to determine age of southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 143(1-3):1-8.

Kalish, J. M., J. M. Johnston, D. C. Smith, A. K. Morison, and S. G. Robertson. 1997. Use of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer for age validation in the blue grenadier Macruronus novaezelandiae. Marine Biology 128(4):557-563.

Kalish, J. M., R. Nydal, K. H. Nedreaas, G. S. Burr, and G. L. Eine. 2001. A time history of pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in the Barents Sea derived from Arcto-Norwegian cod otoliths. Radiocarbon 43(2B):843-855.

Kastelle, C. R., D. M. Anderl, D. K. Kimura, and C. G. Johnston. 2008. Age validation of Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) by means of bomb radiocarbon. Fishery Bulletin 106(4):375-385.

Kastelle, C. R., and J. E. Forsberg. 2002. Testing for loss of Rn-222 from Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) otoliths. Fisheries Research 57(1):93-98.

Kastelle, C. R., and D. K. Kimura. 2006. Age validation of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from the Gulf of Alaska using the disequilibrium of Pb-210 and Ra-226. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63(8):1520-1529.

Kastelle, C. R., D. K. Kimura, and B. J. Goetz. 2008. Bomb radiocarbon age validation of Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus) using new statistical methods. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65(6):1101-1112.

Kastelle, C. R., D. K. Kimura, and S. R. Jay. 2000. Using Pb-210/Ra-226 disequilibrium to validate conventional ages in Scorpaenids (genera Sebastes and Sebastolobus). Fisheries Research 46(1-3):299-312.

Kastelle, C. R., D. K. Kimura, A. E. Nevissi, and D. R. Gunderson. 1994. Using Pb-210/Ra-226 disequilibria for sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, age validation. Fishery Bulletin 92(2):292-301.

Kastelle, C. R., K. E. W. Shelden, and D. K. Kimura. 2003. Age determination of mysticete whales using Pb-210/Ra-226 disequilibria. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(1):21-32.

Kerr, L. A., A. H. Andrews, B. R. Frantz, K. H. Coale, T. A. Brown, and G. M. Cailliet. 2004. Radiocarbon in otoliths of yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus): a reference time series for the coastal waters of southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61(3):443-451.

Kerr, L. A., A. H. Andrews, K. Munk, K. H. Coale, B. R. Frantz, G. M. Cailliet, and T. A. Brown. 2005. Age validation of quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) using bomb radiocarbon. Fishery Bulletin 103(1):97-107.

Kimura, D. K., and D. M. Anderl. 2005. Quality control of age data at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Marine and Freshwater Research 56(5):783-789.

Kimura, D. K., D. M. Anderl, and B. J. Goetz. 2007. Seasonal marginal growth on otoliths of seven Alaska groundfish species support the existence of annual patterns. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 12(2):243-251.

Kimura, D. K., and C. R. Kastelle. 1995. Perspectives on the relationship between otolith growth and the conversion of isotope activity ratios to fish ages. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52(10):2296-2303.

Kimura, D. K., C. R. Kastelle, B. J. Goetz, C. M. Gburski, and A. V. Buslov. 2006. Corroborating the ages of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Marine and Freshwater Research 57(3):323-332.

Kimura, D. K., and J. J. Lyons. 1991. Between-reader bias and variability in the age-determination process. Fishery Bulletin 89(1):53-60.

Kimura, D. K., J. J. Lyons, S. E. Maclellan, and B. J. Goetz. 1992. Effects of year-class strength on age-determination. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43(5):1221-1228.

Kimura, D. K., R. R. Mandapat, and S. L. Oxford. 1979. Method, validity, and variability in the age determination of yellowtail rockfish (Sebastes flavidus), using otoliths. Journal Of The Fisheries Research Board Of Canada 36(4):377-383.

Leaman, B. M., and D. A. Nagtegaal. 1987. Age validation and revised natural mortality rate for yellowtail rockfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116(2):171-175.

LeBreton, G. T. O., and F. H. Beamish. 2000. Interannual growth variation in fish and tree rings. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57(11):2345-2356.

MacLellan, S. E. 2146. How to age rockfish (Sebastes) using S. alutus as an example - the otolith burnt section technique. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2146:1-39.

Matta, M. E., B. A. Black, and T. K. Wilderbuer. 2010. Climate-driven synchrony in otolith growth-increment chronologies for three Bering Sea flatfish species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 413:137-145.

Matta, M. E., and D. R. Gunderson. 2007. Age, growth, maturity, and mortality of the Alaska skate, Bathyraja parmifera, in the eastern Bering Sea. Environmental Biology of Fishes 80:309-323.

Matta, M. E., and D. K. Kimura. IN PRESS. Age determination manual of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center Age and Growth Program. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS XX

McFarlane, G. A., and J. R. King. 2001. The validity of the fin-ray method of age determination for lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus). Fishery Bulletin 99(3):459-464.

McNicol, R. E., and S. E. MacLellan. 2010. Accuracy of using scales to age mixed-stock chinook salmon of hatchery origin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139(3):727-734.

Mills, K. H., and R. J. Beamish. 1980. Comparison of fin-ray and scale age determinations for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and their implications for estimates of growth and annual survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37(3):534-544.

Munk, K. M. 2001. Maximum ages of groundfishes in waters off Alaska and British Columbia and considerations of age determination. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 8(1):12-21.

Munk, K. M. 2001. Walleye pollock otolith aging: comparison of the techniques used by two agencies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Regional Information Report RIR 5J01-06, Juneau.

Piner, K. R., M. A. Haltuch, and J. R. Wallace. 2005. Preliminary use of oxygen stable isotopes and the 1983 El Nino to assess the accuracy of aging black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Fishery Bulletin 103(3):553-558.

Piner, K. R., O. S. Hamel, J. L. Menkel, J. R. Wallace, and C. E. Hutchinson. 2005. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) from off the Oregon coast (USA) using the bomb radiocarbon method. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(5):1060-1066.

Piner, K. R., J. R. Wallace, O. S. Hamel, and R. Mikus. 2006. Evaluation of ageing accuracy of bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis) rockfish using bomb radiocarbon. Fisheries Research 77(2):200-206.

Piner, K. R., and S. G. Wischniowski. 2004. Pacific halibut chronology of bomb radiocarbon in otoliths from 1944 to 1981 and a validation of ageing methods. Journal of Fish Biology 64(4):1060-1071.

Richards, L. J., J. T. Schnute, A. R. Kronlund, and R. J. Beamish. 1992. Statistical models for the analysis of ageing error. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(9):1801-1815.

Roberson, N. E., D. K. Kimura, D. R. Gunderson, and A. M. Shimada. 2005. Indirect validation of the age-reading method for Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) using otoliths from marked and recaptured fish. Fishery Bulletin 103(1):153-160.

Stevens, M. M., A. H. Andrews, G. M. Cailliet, K. H. Coale, and C. C. Lundstrom. 2004. Radiometric validation of age, growth, and longevity for the blackgill rockfish (Sebastes melanostomus). Fishery Bulletin 102(4):711-722.

Stransky, C., and S. E. MacLellan. 2005. Species separation and zoogeography of redfish and rockfish (genus Sebastes) by otolith shape analysis. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(10):2265-2276.

Strom, A., R. C. Francis, N. J. Mantua, E. L. Miles, and D. L. Peterson. 2004. North Pacific climate recorded in growth rings of geoduck clams: a new tool for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Geophysical Research Letters 31(6):-.

Strom, A., R. C. Francis, N. J. Mantua, E. L. Miles, and D. L. Peterson. 2005. Preserving low-frequency climate signals in growth records of geoduck clams (Panopea abrupta). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 228(1-2):167-178.

Stuiver, M., and H. A. Polach. 1977. Discussion: reporting of C-14 data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355-363.

Sweeting, R. M., R. J. Beamish, and C. M. Neville. 2004. Crystalline otoliths in teleosts: comparisons between hatchery and wild coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Strait of Georgia. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14(3):361-369.

Thompson, J. E., and R. W. Hannah. 2010. Using cross-dating techniques to validate ages of aurora rockfish (Sebastes aurora): estimates of age, growth and female maturity. Environmental Biology of Fishes 88:377-388.

Tyler, A. V., R. J. Beamish, and G. A. McFarlane. 1989. Implications of age determination errors to yield estimates. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 108:27-35.

Watters, D. L., D. E. Kline, K. H. Coale, and G. M. Cailliet. 2006. Radiometric age confirmation and growth of a deep-water marine fish species: the bank rockfish, Sebastes rufus. Fisheries Research 81(2-3):251-257.

Weidel, B. C., T. Ushikubo, S. R. Carpenter, N. T. Kita, J. J. Cole, J. F. Kitchell, M. L. Pace, and J. W. Valley. 2007. Diary of a bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus): daily delta C-13 and delta O-18 records in otoliths by ion microprobe. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64(12):1641-1645.

Weidman, C. R., and R. Millner. 2000. High-resolution stable isotope records from North Atlantic cod. Fisheries Research 46(1-3):327-342.

Zhang, Z., and R. J. Beamish. 2000. Use of otolith microstructure to study life history of juvenile chinook salmon in the Strait of Georgia in 1995 and 1996. Fisheries Research 46(1-3):239-250.